Lycopene intake is associated with a lower risk op prostate and breast cancer but the anticancer effects of lutein, a carotenoid with similar structure as lycopene, have not been much studied. A study conducted at the University of Houston was able to demonstrate the anti-cancer activity of lutein in cultured prostate cancer cells . The effect grapefruit-derived and commercial lycopene and lutein preparations on androgen independent malignant tumor cells and androgen-responsive tumor cells were compared to their benign parent cells. Both lycopene and lutein inhibited malignant cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner, whereas no such effect was observed with benign cells were examined.
 Lycopene and lutein inhibit proliferation in rat prostate carcinoma cells. Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):171-7.
location of transcription factors in B16F-10 melanoma cells." Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Sep;6(3):258-70.