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Anti-inflammatory action of cyanidin

The consumption of anti-inflammatory foods, mainly plants rich in anthocyanins, may help to control inflammation. Anti-inflammatory foods mainly include colorful fruits and vegetables. Cyanidin from cherries has been shown to alleviate arthritis in animal model. Rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis showed significant less paw swelling when they were treated with cyanidin. Examination of joints revealed alleviation of inflammatory reaction. Cyanidin possibly acts by increasing glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels and total antioxidative capacity. Morevover, cyandin reduced the serum level of malonaldehyde, which is a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and is an oxidant that causes toxic stress in cells. The production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism [1].

Another in-vivo study with rats demonstrated that cyanidin suppress the inflammatory effect of zymosan, which induces pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells and increases the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein level. Oral administration of cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside significantly reduced the level of peritoneal exudate nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor and the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1. It also normalized the zymosan-induced increased level of alpha2-macroglobulin and decreased level of albumin and transferring [2].

[1] He YH, Xiao C, Wang YS, Zhao LH, Zhao HY, Tong Y, Zhou J, Jia HW, Lu C, Li XM, Lu AP. " Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cyanidin from cherries on rat adjuvant-induced arthritis" Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Oct;30(20):1602-5.
[2] Tsuda T, Horio F, Osawa T. "Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside suppresses nitric oxide production during a zymosan treatment in rats." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Aug;48(4):305-10.

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