phytochemicals Phytochemicals

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Antioxidants in Raspberries

Ellagitannins, flavonoids, and other phenolics in red raspberries and their contribution to antioxidant capacity and vasorelaxation properties.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002 August 28; 50(18):5191-6
The aim of this study was to identify antioxidant phytochemicals in raspberry extract. The following phytochemicals were identified: cyanidin and pelargonidin, ellagitannin (sanguiin H-6), ellagic acid, kaempferol- and quercetin-based flavonol conjugates. Sanguiin H-6 and ascorbic acid were mainly responsible for the antioxidant capacity of the raspberry extract, whereas lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6 showed vasodilating activity.

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002 May 8;50(10):2926-30
The aim of this study was to determine the level of antioxidants and their antiproliferative property of four red raspberry varieties: Heritage, Kiwigold, Goldie and Anne. The researchers found that the Heritage raspberry variety contained the highest level of polyphenols and flavonoids, followed by Kiwigold, Goldie and Anne. The red color of the raspberry juice is linked to its content of polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The antiproliferative action of the phytochemicals was tested on human liver cancer cells. There was no relationship between phytochemical content and antiproliferative action. Extract from all three raspberry varieties showed a significant inhibited in a dose-dependent manner.

Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry.
Biofactors. 2005;23(4):197-205
This publication is a review of existing literature on antioxidants from raspberry. It also looks at the analysis methods, types of antioxidants, influence of ripeness and bioavailability. The authors concluded that raspberries are a valuable source of potentially healthy compounds.

Antioxidants in raspberry: on-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005 May 4;53(9):3313-20
The aim of this study was to separate the antioxidants in red raspberry with high-performance liquid chromatography and at the same time determining their antioxidant properties. The influence of ripeness and cultivar on antioxidant composition was also determined. The main antioxidants were anthocyanins, ellagitannins and proanthocyanidin-like tannins. During ripening the level of some antioxidant, such as anthocyanins, increased whereas levels ellagitannins and proanthocyanidins reduced. There were large differences in antioxidants among different raspberry cultivars.

Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000 Feb;48(2):140-6
Fruits, but also leaves from different berry plants, such as blackberry, red raspberry, black raspberry and strawberry were analyzed for antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins content (only berries) and total phenolic content. The researchers found that blackberries and strawberries had the highest antioxidant capacity when still unripe, whereas red raspberries had the highest antioxidant capacity when fully ripe. The anthocyanin content increased with maturity. The leaves had higher antioxidant capacity than the berries. In leaves the phenolics are responsible for the antioxidant capacity, whereas in berries antioxidant capacity is related to anthocyanin content.

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